Francis Fukuyama

Nonresident Scholar
Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program
tel 650-723-3214
Francis Fukuyama is a nonresident scholar in Carnegie’s Democracy, Conflict, and Governance Program, where his research focuses on democratization and international political economy.


PhD, Political Science, Harvard University
BA, Classics, Cornell University





Francis Fukuyama is a nonresident scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He is also the Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow at Stanford University's Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies (FSI), and a faculty member of FSI's Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law (CDDRL). He is also director of Stanford's Masters in International Policy Program and a professor (by courtesy) of political science.

Dr. Fukuyama has written widely on issues in development and international politics. His 1992 book, The End of History and the Last Man, has appeared in over twenty foreign editions. His most recent book, Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment, was published in September 2018.  His next book, Liberalism and Its Discontents, will be published in the spring of 2022.

Francis Fukuyama received his BA from Cornell University in classics and his PhD from Harvard in political science.  He was a member of the Political Science Department of the RAND Corporation and of the Policy Planning Staff of the U.S. Department of State. From 1996-2000, he was Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy at the School of Public Policy at George Mason University, and from 2001-2010, he was Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University. He served as a member of the President’s Council on Bioethics from 2001-2004. 

Dr. Fukuyama holds honorary doctorates from Connecticut College, Doane College, Doshisha University (Japan), Kansai University (Japan), and Aarhus University (Denmark), and the Pardee Rand Graduate School. He is also a nonresident fellow at the Center for Global Development. He is a member of the Board of Governors of the Pardee Rand Graduate School and the Volcker Alliance. He is a member of the American Political Science Association and the Council on Foreign Relations. He is married to Laura Holmgren and has three children.

  • Op-Ed November 19, 2021
    Francis Fukuyama on the End of American Hegemony

    The United States is not likely to regain its earlier hegemonic status, nor should it aspire to. What it can hope for is to sustain, with like-minded countries, a world order friendly to democratic values. Whether it can do this will depend on recovering a sense of national identity and purpose at home.

  • Trump Bid Reveals Myth of the CEO President
    Op-Ed Financial Times April 27, 2011
    Trump Bid Reveals Myth of the CEO President

    Despite the popular appeal of businesslike efficiency in government and a plethora of political bids by private sector executives, the American presidency requires completely different skills than those of a corporate executive.

  • Half a Miracle
    Op-Ed Foreign Policy April 25, 2011
    Half a Miracle

    The transformation of the Columbian city of Medellín offers an example to Mexico of how a government engaged in a drug war can bolster its legitimacy and gain greater public support.

  • Tragedy Can Bring About New Kind of Japanese Polit
    Op-Ed Japan Today March 24, 2011
    Tragedy Can Bring About New Kind of Japanese Politics

    Japan's national tragedy of the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis could provide an opportunity for a new kind of Japanese politics, with the leadership the country needs to endure the sacrifices necessary to ensuring its economic health and survival.

  • Liberals Had Better Get Organized
    Op-Ed Wall Street Journal February 2, 2011
    Liberals Had Better Get Organized

    While recent events in Tunisia and in Egypt demonstrate that Arabs are not a cultural exception to the broad desire for freedom around the world, building democracy will require the creation of organized political parties.

  • US Democracy Has Little To Teach China
    Op-Ed Financial Times January 17, 2011
    US Democracy Has Little To Teach China

    China's political system has proven capable of making difficult decisions rapidly and while it may face internal challenges, the U.S. model of liberal democracy has lost substantial credibility as an alternative.

  • Samuel Huntington's Legacy
    Op-Ed Foreign Policy January 5, 2011
    Samuel Huntington's Legacy

    Samuel Huntington transformed political science by dealing a fatal blow to modernization theory and highlighting the importance of political order and culture, but he was wrong in saying that democracy cannot have universal application.

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