Thomas de Waal

Senior Fellow
Carnegie Europe
De Waal is a senior fellow with Carnegie Europe, specializing in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus region.


BA, Balliol College, University of Oxford


English; Russian


Tom de Waal is a senior fellow with Carnegie Europe, specializing in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus region.

He is the author of numerous publications about the region. The second edition of his book The Caucasus: An Introduction (Oxford University Press) was published in 2018. He is also the author of Great Catastrophe: Armenians and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide (Oxford University Press, 2015) and of the authoritative book on the Nagorny Karabakh conflict, Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War (NYU Press, second edition 2013).

From 2010 to 2015, de Waal worked for the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington, DC. Before that he worked extensively as a journalist in both print and for BBC radio. From 1993 to 1997, he worked in Moscow for the Moscow Times, the Times of London, and the Economist, specializing in Russian politics and the situation in Chechnya. He co-authored (with Carlotta Gall) the book Chechnya: Calamity in the Caucasus (NYU Press, 1997), for which the authors were awarded the James Cameron Prize for Distinguished Reporting.

  • The Caucasus: An Introduction, 2nd Edition
    Oxford University Press December 1, 2018
    The Caucasus: An Introduction, 2nd Edition

    This new edition of The Caucasus is a thorough update of an essential guide that has in-troduced thousands of readers to a complex region.

  • Oxford University Press January 27, 2015
    Great Catastrophe: Armenians and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide

    Although it is now a century old, the issue of what most of the world calls the Armenian Genocide of 1915 is still a live and divisive issue that mobilizes Armenians across the world, shapes the identity and politics of modern Turkey, and has consumed the attention of U.S. politicians for years.

  • NYU Press July 8, 2013
    Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War, 10th Year Anniversary Edition

    Nearly 20 years since the 1994 ceasefire, Armenia and Azerbaijan have still failed to resolve their dispute and normalize relations.

  • Oxford University Press September 17, 2010
    The Caucasus: An Introduction

    While the Caucasus is too often treated as a subset of Russian history or as merely a gateway to Asia, it remains an important and combustible region, whose inner dynamics and history deserve a much more complex appreciation from the wider world.

  • The World April 23, 2021
    Biden Expected to Recognize Armenian Genocide

    Thomas de Waal assesses the implications of U.S. President Joe Biden's decision to recognize that the World War I-era killing and deportation of Armenians by the Ottoman Empire was a genocide.

  • KPCC AirTalk April 22, 2015
    Armenians in U.S. Double-take as Obama Balks on Using ‘Genocide’ in Commemoration

    Friday marks the 100th anniversary of the mass killing of 1.5 million Armenians at the hands of the Ottoman Turks, but President Obama won’t be using the term ‘genocide’ to describe them.

  • WAMU’s Diane Rehm Show April 14, 2015
    A New Chapter in the Century-Old Debate Over the Massacre of Armenians

    Pope Francis reignited a debate that has smoldered for a hundred years: Whether the deaths of more than a million Armenians were caused by a policy of genocide by the Turks.

  • WBEZ January 22, 2014
    Sochi’s Security Threat

    The Sochi Olympics may actually be one of the safest places in Russia, but terrorists could still affect the Olympics by carrying out an attack elsewhere.

  • Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty January 13, 2014
    Armenia, the Eurasian Customs Union, and the Future

    There are still many questions about Armenia’s future in the Russia-led Eurasian Customs Union, as well as the future of the union itself.

  • Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty October 24, 2013
    Georgia’s Presidential Elections

    Georgia elects a new president on October 27, a key moment in the country’s transition to a parliamentary republic.

  • CNN April 27, 2013
    Boston Terror: Behind the Bombings

    The two suspected terrorists were influenced at least indirectly by the Chechen wars which devastated Chechnya. While this was traumatic for most, a small minority have become radicalized.

  • PRI’s The World March 5, 2013
    Why Stalin Remains Popular in Parts of Former Soviet Union

    Stalin is a figure not just of the past, but of the present.

  • BBC World News March 5, 2013
    Remembering Stalin

    The figure of Stalin still provokes many positive reactions in the former Soviet Union.

  • Voice of America February 27, 2013
    Tensions Between Armenia and Azerbaijan

    The situation in the South Caucasus continues to be perilous as leaders of both Armenia and Azerbaijan find themselves increasingly boxed in by domestic political constraints.

  • Responding to China’s Influence in Southeastern, Central, and Eastern Europe
    October 26, 2021 Live Online
    Responding to China’s Influence in Southeastern, Central, and Eastern Europe

    China’s expanding economic and political footprint in Central and Eastern Europe has created new opportunities for trade and investment.

  • Georgia’s European Quest
    April 13, 2021 Live Online
    Georgia’s European Quest

    Is Georgia still on the European track? Carnegie Europe’s Thomas de Waal will host an event to discuss the future of Georgia and what more can be done to bridge the country’s societal divisions.

  • Georgia’s Pivotal Election
    October 15, 2020 Live Online
    Georgia’s Pivotal Election

    On October 31, Georgians will go to the polls for a parliamentary election that takes place in the context of an economic downturn and rising political polarization.

  • Public Event on Nagorno-Karabakh
    October 9, 2020 Live
    A New Era for the Karabakh Conflict?

    A new and deadly conflict has broken out between Armenia and Azerbaijan that has already cost hundreds of lives, including those of many civilians, and upended regional stability in the South Caucasus.

  • January 20, 2020 Carnegie Europe
    Rethinking Peace in an Age of Global Disorder

    Global problems require complex solutions. The current growing global disorder in its many forms makes the case for a reimagined international peace project, albeit a very different one from that of a century ago.

  • georgia
    April 10, 2019 Carnegie Europe
    A Journey to the Caucasus

    This new edition of The Caucasus is a thorough update of an essential guide that has introduced thousands of readers to a complex region.

  • Tom de Waal
    December 11, 2018 Carnegie Europe
    The Challenges of Engaging Europe’s Breakaway States

    Better engagement with Europe’s de facto states by international actors within a framework of nonrecognition should benefit all sides, yet it remains a big challenge.

  • March 31, 2017 King’s College London, River Room
    The Resource Trap: How Do Russia’s Economic Challenges Stack Up Against Other Petrostates?

    Carnegie Moscow Center hosted a discussion on the impact of resource dependency on the economic development of Russia and other major petrostates in a comparative context.

  • Separatist Territories
    January 26, 2017 Carnegie Europe
    Engaging With Separatist Territories in Europe’s East

    The map of Eastern Europe contains a number of de facto separatist states created by conflict. How can the EU enhance its engagement with these territories?

  • April 27, 2016 Carnegie Europe
    Fighting Corruption in the EU’s Eastern Neighborhood

    From the East-West standoff in Ukraine to mass migration and its causes, corruption is a surreptitious underlying driver.


Areas of Expertise

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036-2103 Phone: 202 483 7600 Fax: 202 483 1840
Please note...

You are leaving the website for the Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy and entering a website for another of Carnegie's global centers.